Archive for January, 2011


Happy Republic Day

Happy Republic day

The National Flag of India is a horizontal rectangular tricolour of deep saffron, white and India green; with the Ashoka Chakra, a 24-spoke wheel, in blue at its centre. It was adopted in its present form during a meeting of the Constituent Assembly held on 22 July 1947, when it became the official flag of the Dominion of India. The flag was subsequently retained as that of the Republic of India. In India, the term “tricolour” (Hindi: तिरंगा, Tirangā) almost always refers to the Indian national flag. The flag is based on the Swaraj flag, a flag of the Indian National Congress designed by Pingali Venkayya.

The flag, by law, is to be made of khadi, a special type of hand-spun cloth of cotton or silk made popular by Mahatma Gandhi. The manufacturing process and specifications for the flag are laid out by the Bureau of Indian Standards. The right to manufacture the flag is held by the Khadi Development and Village Industries Commission, who allocate it to the regional groups. As of 2009, the Karnataka Khadi Gramodyoga Samyukta Sangha was the sole manufacturer of the flag.

Usage of the flag is governed by the Flag Code of India and other laws relating to the national emblems. The original code prohibited use of the flag by private citizens except on national days such as the Independence day and the Republic Day. In 2002, on hearing an appeal from a private citizen, the Supreme Court of India directed the Government of India to amend the code to allow flag usage by private citizens. Subsequently, the Union Cabinet of India amended the code to allow limited usage. The code was amended once more in 2005 to allow some additional use including adaptations on certain forms of clothing. The flag code also governs the protocol of flying the flag and its use in conjunction with other national and non-national flags.

India was under British rule in the 19th century. A number of flags with varying designs were used in the period preceding the Indian Independence Movement by the rulers of different princely states; the idea of a single Indian flag was first raised by the British rulers of India after the rebellion of 1857, which resulted in the establishment of direct imperial rule. Several Colonial flags, whose designs were based on western heraldic standards, were similar to the flags of other British colonies, including Canada and Australia; the blue and red ensigns included the Union Flag in the upper-left quadrant and a Star of India capped by the royal crown in the middle of the right half. To address the question of how the star conveyed “Indianness”,Queen Victoria created the Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India to honour services to the empire by her Indian subjects. Subsequently, all the Indian princly states received flags with symbols based on the heraldic criteria of Europe including the right to fly defaced British red ensigns.[1]

. The red ensign became the most prominent flag used to represent British India during World War II and was used in the context of India’s membership of the League of Nations and, between 1945 and 1947, the United Nations.[3]

In the early twentieth century, around the coronation of Edward VII, a discussion started on the need for a heraldic symbol that was representative of the Indian empire. William Coldstream, a British member of the Indian Civil Service, campaigned the government to change the heraldic symbol from a star, which he considered to be a common choice, to something more appropriate that would bind the people to the Kingdom of Great Britain. His proposal was not well received by the government; Lord Curzon rejected it for practical reasons including the multiplication of flags.[4] Around this time, nationalist opinion within the dominion was leading to a representation through religious tradition. The symbols that were in vogue included the Ganesha, advocated by Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and Kali, advocated by Aurobindo Ghosh and Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. Another symbol was the cow, or Gau Mata (cow mother). However, all these symbols were Hindu-centric and did not suggest unity with India’s Muslim population.[5]

The partition of Bengal (1905) resulted in the introduction of a new Indian flag that sought to unite the multitude of castes and races within the country. The Vande Mataram flag, part of the Swadeshi movement against the British, comprised Indian religious symbols represented in western heraldic fashion. The tricolour flag included eight white lotuses on the upper red band – representing the eight provinces, a sun and a crescent on the bottom green band – representing the Hindu and Muslim population respectively, and the Bande Mataram slogan in Hindi on the central yellow band. The flag was launched in Calcutta bereft of any ceremony and the launch was only briefly covered by newspapers. The flag was not covered in contemporary governmental or political reports either, but was used at the annual session of the Indian National Congress. A slightly modified version was subsequently used by Madam Bhikaji Cama at the Second Socialist International Meeting in Stuttgart. Despite the multiple uses of the flag, it failed to generate enthusiasm amongst Indian nationalists.[6]

Around the same time, another proposal for the flag was initiated by Sister Nivedita, a Hindu reformist and disciple of Swami Vivekananda. The flag consisted of a thunderbolt in the centre and a hundred and eight oil lamps for the border, with the Vande Mataram caption split around the thunderbolt. It was also presented at the Indian National Congress meeting in 1906.[7] Soon, many other proposals were initiated, but none of them gained attention from the nationalist movement. In 1916, Pingali Venkayya submitted thirty new designs, in the form of a booklet funded by members of the High Court of Madras. These many proposals and recommendations did little more than keep the flag movement alive. The same year, Annie Besant and Bal Gangadhar Tilak adopted a new flag as part of the Home Rule Movement. The flag included the Union Jack in the upper left corner, a star and crescent in the upper right, and seven stars displayed diagonally from the lower right, on a background of five red and four green alternating bands. The flag resulted in the first governmental initiative against any nationalistic flag, as a magistrate in Coimbatore banned its use. The ban was followed by a public debate on the function and importance of a national flag.[8]

A tricolour flag of white, green and red with a spinning wheel in the centre

Gandhi’s flag, introduced at the Congress meeting in 1921[9]

In the early 1920s, national flag discussions gained prominence across most British dominions following the peace treaty between Britain and Ireland. In November 1920, the Indian delegation to the League of Nations wanted to use an Indian flag, and this prompted the British Indian government to place renewed emphasis on the flag as a national symbol. In April 1921, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi wrote in his journal Young India about the need for an Indian flag, proposing a flag with the charkha or spinning wheel at the centre.[10] The idea of the spinning wheel was put forth by Lala Hansraj, and Gandhi commissioned Venkayya to design a flag with the spinning wheel on a red and green banner, the red colour signifying Hindus and the green standing for Muslims. Gandhi wanted the flag to be presented at the Congress session of 1921, but it was not delivered on time, and another flag was proposed at the session. Gandhi later wrote that the delay was fortuitous since it allowed him to realise that other religions were not represented; he then added white to the banner colours, to represent all the other religions. However, soon the Sikhs wanted the banner to include the black colour and Gandhi was forced to address these issues in his writings and speeches. Finally, owing to the religious-political sensibilities, in 1929, Gandhi moved towards a more secular interpretation of the flag colours, stating that red stood for the sacrifices of the people, white for purity, and green for hope.[11]

On 13 April 1923, during a procession by local Congress volunteers in Nagpur commemorating the Jallianwala Bagh massacre , the Swaraj flag with the spinning wheel, designed by Venkayya, was hoisted. This event resulted in a confrontation between the Congressmen and the police, after which five people were imprisoned. Over a hundred other protesters continued the flag procession after a meeting. Subsequently, on the first of May, Jamnalal Bajaj, the secretary of the Nagpur Congress Committee, started the Flag Satyagraha, gaining national attention and marking a significant point in the flag movement. The satyagraha, promoted nationally by the Congress, started creating cracks within the organisation in which the Gandhians were highly enthused while the other group, the Swarajists, called it inconsequential. Finally, at the All India Congress Committee meeting in July, at the insistence of Jawaharlal Nehru and Sarojini Naidu, Congress closed ranks and the flag movement was endorsed. The flag movement was managed by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel with the idea of public processions and flag displays by common people. By the end of the movement, over 1500 people had been arrested across all of British India. The Bombay Chronicle reported that the movement drew from diverse groups of society including farmers, students, merchants, labourers and “national servants”. While Muslim participation was moderate, the movement enthused women, who had hitherto rarely participated in the independence movement.[12]

A tricolour flag of saffron, white and green with a spinning wheel in the centre

The Swaraj Flag, officially adopted by the Congress in 1931[13]

While the flag agitation got its impetus from Gandhi’s writings and discourses, the movement received political acceptance following the Nagpur incident. News reports, editorials and letters to editors published in various journals and newspapers of the time attest to the subsequent development of a bond between the flag and the nation. Soon, the concept of preserving the honour of the national flag became an integral component of the freedom struggle. While Muslims were still wary of the Swaraj flag, it gained acceptance among Muslim leaders of the Congress and the Khilafat Movement as the national flag. Detractors of the flag movement, including Motilal Nehru, soon hailed the Swaraj flag as a symbol of national unity. Thus, the flag became a significant structural component of the institution of India. In contrast to the subdued responses of the past, the British Indian government took greater cognisance of the new flag, and began to define a policy of response. The British parliament discussed public use of the flag, and based on directives from England, the British Indian government threatened to withdraw funds from municipalities and local governments that did not prevent the display of the Swaraj flag.[14] The Swaraj flag became the official flag of Congress at the 1931 meeting. However, by then, the flag had already become the symbol of the independence movement.[15]

A postage stamp, featuring a fluttering Indian flag above the word "INDIA". At left is "15 AUG. 1947" and "3½ As."; at right is "जय हिंन्द" above "POSTAGE".

Indian Flag, the first stamp of independent India, released on 21 Nov 1947, was meant for foreign correspondence.[16][17]

A few days before India gained its freedom in August 1947, the Constituent Assembly was formed. To select a flag for independent India, on 23 June 1947, the assembly set up an ad hoc committee headed by Rajendra Prasad and including Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Sarojini Naidu, C. Rajagopalachari, K. M. Munshi and B.R. Ambedkar as its members. On 14 July 1947, the committee recommended that the flag of the Indian National Congress be adopted as the National Flag of India with suitable modifications, so as to make it acceptable to all parties and communities. It was also resolved that the flag should not have any communal undertones.[18] The spinning wheel of the Congress flag was replaced by the Chakra (wheel) from the Lion Capital of Ashoka. According to Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, the chakra was chosen as it was representative of dharma and law. However, Nehru explained that the change was more practical in nature, as unlike the flag with the spinning wheel, this design would appear symmetrical. Gandhi was not very pleased by the change, but eventually came around to accepting it. The flag was proposed by Nehru at the Constituent Assembly on 22 July 1947 as a horizontal tricolor of deep saffron, white and dark green in equal proportions, with the Ashoka wheel in blue in the centre of the white band. Nehru also presented two flags, one in Khadi-silk and the other in Khadi-cotton, to the assembly. The resolution was approved unanimously.[19] It served as the national flag of the Dominion of India between 15 August 1947 and 26 January 1950, and has served as the flag of the Republic of India since then.[20]

[edit] Design and symbolism

Gandhi first proposed a flag to the Indian National Congress in 1921. The flag was designed by Pingali Venkayya, an agriculturist from Machilipatnam.[21][22] The original design Gandhi was presented with included two colours, red for the Hindus, and green for the Muslims. In the centre was a traditional spinning wheel, symbolising Gandhi’s goal of making Indians self-reliant by fabricating their own clothing. The design was then modified to include a white stripe in the centre for other religious communities, and provide a background for the spinning wheel. Subsequently, to avoid sectarian associations with the colour scheme, saffron, white and green were chosen for the three bands, representing courage and sacrifice, peace and truth, and faith and chivalry respectively.[23]

A few days before India became independent on August 1947, the specially constituted Constituent Assembly decided that the flag of India must be acceptable to all parties and communities.[20] A modified version of the Swaraj flag was chosen; the tricolour remained the same saffron, white and green. However, the charkha was replaced by the Ashoka Chakra representing the eternal wheel of law. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, who later became India’s first Vice President, clarified the adopted flag and described its significance as follows:

Bhagwa or the saffron colour denotes renunciation or disinterestedness. Our leaders must be indifferent to material gains and dedicate themselves to their work. The white in the centre is light, the path of truth to guide our conduct. The green shows our relation to (the) soil, our relation to the plant life here, on which all other life depends. The “Ashoka Chakra” in the centre of the white is the wheel of the law of dharma. Truth or satya, dharma or virtue ought to be the controlling principle of those who work under this flag. Again, the wheel denotes motion. There is death in stagnation. There is life in movement. India should no more resist change, it must move and go forward. The wheel represents the dynamism of a peaceful change.[24]

The design and manufacturing process for the national flag is regulated by three documents issued by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). All of the flags are made out of khadi cloth of silk or cotton. The standards were created in 1968 and were updated in 2008.[25] Nine standard sizes of the flag are specified by law,[24] and the largest size (6.3 by 4.2 metres (21 × 14 ft)) is flown by the government of Maharashtra atop the Mantralaya building, the state administrative headquarters.[26]

In 1951, after India became a republic, the Indian Standards Institute (now the BIS) brought out the first official specifications for the flag. These were revised in 1964 to conform to the metric system which was adopted in India. The specifications were further amended on 17 August 1968.[18] The specifications cover all the essential requirements of the manufacture of the Indian flag including sizes, dye colour, chromatic values, brightness, thread count and hemp cordage. The guidelines are covered under civil and criminal laws and defects in the manufacturing process can result in punishments that include fines or jail terms.[27][28] Khadi or hand-spun cloth is the only material allowed to be used for the flag, and flying a flag made of any other material is punishable by law with imprisonment up to three years, besides a fine. Raw materials for khadi are restricted to cotton, silk and wool. There are two kinds of khadi used: The first is the khadi-bunting which makes up the body of the flag, and the second is the khadi-duck, which is a beige-coloured cloth that holds the flag to the pole. The khadi-duck is an unconventional type of weave that meshes three threads into a weave, compared to the two weaves used in conventional weaving. This type of weaving is extremely rare, and there are fewer than twenty weavers in India professing this skill. The guidelines also state that there should be exactly 150 threads per square centimetre, four threads per stitch, and one square foot should weigh exactly 205 grams (7.2 oz).[18][27][28][29]

Lettering written and printed on a canvas strip

A header of an Indian flag (size 6, date 2007/2008) certified by the ISI.

The woven khadi is obtained from two handloom units in the Dharwad and Bagalkot districts of northern Karnataka. Currently, Karnataka Khadi Gramodyoga Samyukta Sangha based in Hubli is the only licenced flag production and supply unit in India.[28] Permission for setting up flag manufacturing units in India is allotted by the Khadi Development and Village Industries Commission, though the BIS has the power to cancel the licences of units that flout guidelines.[18] The hand-woven khadi for the National Flag was initially manufactured at Garag, a small village in the Dharwad district. A Centre was established at Garag in 1954 by a few freedom fighters under the banner of Dharwad Taluk Kshetriya Seva Sangh and obtained the Centre’s licence to make flags.[18]

Once woven, the material is sent to the BIS laboratories for testing. After quality testing, the material, if approved, is returned to the factory. It is then separated into three lots which are dyed saffron, white and green. The Ashoka Chakra is screen printed, stencilled or suitably embroidered onto each side of the white cloth. Care also has to be taken that the chakra is completely visible and synchronised on both sides. Three pieces of the required dimension, one of each colour, are then stitched together according to specifications and the final product is ironed and packed. The BIS then checks the colours and only then can the flag be sold.[27][28]

[edit] Protocol

Main article: Flag Code of India
Two Indian flags side by side, the first is horizontal with the saffron band at the top, the second is vertical with the saffron band to the left.

Correct horizontal and vertical display of the flag

Display and usage of the flag is governed by the Flag Code of India, 2002 (successor to the Flag Code – India, the original flag code); the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950; and the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971.[18] Insults to the national flag, including gross affronts or indignities to it, as well as using it in a manner so as to violate the provisions of the Flag Code, are punishable by law with imprisonment up to three years, or a fine, or both.[30] Official regulation states that the flag must never touch the ground or water, or be used as a drapery in any form.[18] The flag may not be intentionally placed upside down, dipped in anything, or hold any objects other than flower petals before unfurling. No sort of lettering may be inscribed on the flag. When out in the open, the flag should always be flown between sunrise and sunset, irrespective of the weather conditions. Prior to 2009, the flag could be flown on a public building at night under special circumstances; currently, Indian citizens can fly the flag even at the night, subject to the restriction that the flag should be hoisted on a tall flagpole and be well-illuminated.[18][31] The flag should never be depicted, displayed or flown upside down. Tradition also states that when draped vertically, the flag should not merely be rotated 90 degrees, but also reversed. One “reads” a flag like the pages of a book, from top to bottom and from left to right, and after rotation the results should be the same. It is considered insulting to display the flag in a frayed or dirty state, and the same rule applies to the flagpoles and halyards used to hoist the flag, which should always be in a proper state of maintenance.[24]

The original flag code of India did not allow private citizens to fly the national flag except on national days such as Independence Day or Republic Day. In 2001, Naveen Jindal, an industrialist used to the more egalitarian use of the flag in the United States where he studied, flew the Indian flag on his office building. The flag was confiscated and he was warned of prosecution. Jindal filed a public interest litigation petition in the High Court of Delhi; he sought to strike down the restriction on the use of the flag by private citizens, arguing that hoisting the national flag with due decorum and honour was his right as a citizen, and a way of expressing his love for the country.[32][33] At the end of the appeals process, the case was heard by the Supreme Court of India; the court ruled in Jindal’s favour, asking the Government of India to consider the matter. The Union Cabinet of India then amended the Indian Flag Code with effect from 26 January 2002, allowing private citizens to hoist the flag on any day of the year, subject to their safeguarding the dignity, honour and respect of the flag.[18] It is also held that the code was not a statute and restrictions under the code ought to be followed; also, the right to fly the flag is a qualified right, unlike the absolute rights guaranteed to citizens, and should be interpreted in the context of Article 19 of the Constitution of India.[18] The original flag code also forbade use of the flag on uniforms, costumes and other clothing. In July 2005, the Government of India amended the code to allow some forms of usage. The amended code forbids usage in clothing below the waist and on undergarments, and forbids embroidering onto pillowcases, handkerchiefs or other dress material.[34]

Disposal of damaged flags is also covered by the flag code. Damaged or soiled flags may not be cast aside or disrespectfully destroyed; they have to be destroyed as a whole in private, preferably by burning or by any other method consistent with the dignity of the flag.[24]

[edit] Display

The Indian flag and another flag on crossed poles; the Indian flag is at the left.

Placement protocol for the Indian flag with another country’s flag

The rules regarding the correct methods to display the flag state that when two flags are fully spread out horizontally on a wall behind a podium, their hoists should be towards each other with the saffron stripes uppermost. If the flag is displayed on a short flagpole, this should be mounted at an angle to the wall with the flag draped tastefully from it. If two national flags are displayed on crossed staffs, the hoists must be towards each other and the flags must be fully spread out. The flag should never be used as a cloth to cover tables, lecterns, podiums or buildings, or be draped from railings.[24] Whenever the flag is displayed indoors in halls at public meetings or gatherings of any kind, it should always be on the right (observers’ left), as this is the position of authority. So when the flag is displayed next to a speaker in the hall or other meeting place, it must be placed on the speaker’s right hand. When it is displayed elsewhere in the hall, it should be to the right of the audience. The flag should be displayed completely spread out with the saffron stripe on top. If hung vertically on the wall behind the podium, the saffron stripe should be to the left of the onlookers facing the flag with the hoist cord at the top.[24]

Sketch of eight people carrying flags in a procession, the first and last persons have the India tricolour

A flag procession

The flag, when carried in a procession or parade or with another flag or flags, should be on the marching right or alone in the centre at the front. The flag may form a distinctive feature of the unveiling of a statue, monument, or plaque, but should never be used as the covering for the object. As a mark of respect to the flag, it should never be dipped to a person or thing, as opposed to regimental colours, organisational or institutional flags, which may be dipped as a mark of honour. During the ceremony of hoisting or lowering the flag, or when the flag is passing in a parade or in a review, all persons present should face the flag and stand at attention. Those present in uniform should render the appropriate salute. When the flag is in a moving column, persons present will stand at attention or salute as the flag passes them. A dignitary may take the salute without a head dress. The flag salutation should be followed by the playing of the national anthem.[24]

The privilege of flying the national flag on vehicles is restricted to the President, Vice-President, Prime Minister, Governors and Lieutenant Governors of states, Chief Ministers, Union Ministers, members of the Parliament of India and state legislatures of the Indian states (Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad), judges of the Supreme Court of India and High Courts, and flag officers of the Army, Navy and Air Force. The flag has to be flown from a staff affixed firmly either on the middle front or to the front right side of the car. When a foreign dignitary travels in a car provided by government, the flag should be flown on the right side of the car while the flag of the foreign country should be flown on the left side.[18] The flag should be flown on the aircraft carrying the President, the Vice-President or the Prime Minister on a visit to a foreign country. Alongside the National Flag, the flag of the country visited should also be flown; however, when the aircraft lands in countries en route, the national flags of the respective countries would be flown instead. When carrying the President within India, aircrafts display the flag on the side the President embarks or disembarks; the flag is similarly flown on trains, but only when the train is stationary or approaching a railway station.[24]

When the Indian flag is flown on Indian territory along with other national flags, the general rule is that the Indian flag should be the starting point of all flags. When flags are placed in a straight line, the rightmost flag (leftmost to the observer facing the flag) is the Indian flag, followed by other national flags in alphabetical order. When placed in a circle, the Indian flag is the first point and is followed by other flags alphabetically. In such placement, all other flags should be of approximately the same size with no other flag being larger than the Indian flag. Each national flag should also be flown from its own pole and no flag should be placed higher than another. In addition to being the first flag, the Indian flag may also be placed within the row or circle alphabetically. When placed on crossed poles, the Indian flag should be in front of the other flag, and to the right (observer’s left) of the other flag. The only exception to the preceding rule is when it is flown along with the flag of the United Nations, which may be placed to the right of the Indian flag.[24]

When the Indian flag is displayed with non-national flags, including corporate flags and advertising banners, the rules state that if the flags are on separate staffs, the flag of India should be in the middle, or the furthest left from the viewpoint of the onlookers, or at least one flag’s breadth higher than the other flags in the group. Its flagpole must be in front of the other poles in the group, but if they are on the same staff, it must be the uppermost flag. If the flag is carried in procession with other flags, it must be at the head of the marching procession, or if carried with a row of flags in line abreast, it must be carried to the marching right of the procession.[24]

[edit] Half-mast

The flag should be flown at half-mast as a sign of mourning. The decision to do so lies with the President of India, who also decides the period of such mourning. When the flag is to be flown at half mast, it must first be raised to the top of the mast and then slowly lowered. Only the Indian flag is flown half mast; all other flags remain at normal height. The flag is flown half-mast nationwide on the death of the President, Vice-president or Prime Minister. It is flown half-mast in New Delhi and the state of origin for the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and Union Ministers. On deaths of Governors, Lt. Governors and Chief Ministers, the flag is flown at half-mast in the respective states and union territories. The Indian flag can not be flown at half-mast on Republic Day, Independence day, Gandhi Jayanti, National Week or state formation anniversaries except over buildings housing the body of the deceased. However, even in such cases, the flag must be raised to full-mast when the body is moved from the building. Observances of State mourning on the death of foreign dignitaries are governed by special instructions issued from the Ministry of Home Affairs in individual cases. However, in the event of death of either the Head of the State or Head of the Government of a foreign country, the Indian Mission accredited to that country may fly the national flag at half-mast. On occasions of state, military, central para-military forces funerals, the flag shall be draped over the bier or coffin with the saffron towards the head of the bier or coffin. The flag shall not be lowered into the grave or burnt in the pyre.[24]

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Shakira Latest Wallpapers

Shakira Latest Wallpapers

Shakira Latest Wallpapers

Shakira Latest Wallpapers

Shakira Latest Wallpapers

Shakira Latest Wallpapers

Shakira Latest Wallpapers

Shakira Latest Wallpapers

Shakira Latest Wallpapers

Shakira Latest Wallpapers

Shakira Latest Wallpapers

Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll (born February 2, 1977),[2] known professionally as Shakira (pronounced /ʃəˈkɪərə/, Spanish: [tʃaˈkiɾa] or [ʃaˈkiɾa]),[3] is a Colombian singer, songwriter, musician, record producer, dancer, and philanthropist who emerged in the music scene of Colombia and Latin America in the early 1990s. Born and raised in Barranquilla, Colombia, Shakira revealed many of her talents in school as a live performer, demonstrating her vocal ability with rock and roll, Latin and Middle Eastern influences with her own original twist on belly dancing. Shakira is a native Spanish speaker and also speaks fluent English and Portuguese.[4]

After commercial flops with local producers on her first two albums, and being little-known outside Colombia, Shakira decided to produce her own brand of music. In 1995 she released Pies Descalzos, which brought her great fame in Latin America and Spain, and her 1998 album ¿Dónde Están los Ladrones? was a critical success. Since then she has gained many fans in semi-Hispanophone countries, and many non-Spanish-speaking countries, especially the United States. In 2001, aided by the extreme popularity of the music video for “Whenever, Wherever“, she broke through into the English-speaking world with the release of Laundry Service, which sold over 13 million copies worldwide.[5][6] Four years later, Shakira released two album projects called Fijación Oral Vol. 1 and Oral Fixation Vol. 2. Both reinforced her success, particularly with the best selling song of the 2000s, “Hips Don’t Lie“.[7]

She has won two Grammy Awards,[5] seven Latin Grammy Awards,[5] twelve Billboard Latin Music Awards[5] and has been Golden Globe-nominated.[5] She is also the highest-selling Colombian artist of all time, and the second most successful female Latin singer after Gloria Estefan, having sold over 60 million albums worldwide according to Sony Music.[8] Her U.S. album sales stand at 9.6 million.[9]

Additionally, she is the only artist from South America to reach the number-one spot on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100, the Australian ARIA chart, and the UK Singles Chart.[10] Shakira is to be given a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame as well.[11][12] In the fall of 2009, Shakira released her sixth album She Wolf worldwide.[13] Shakira was ranked the 76th artist of the 2000–10 artist of the decade by Billboard.[14]

Shakira’s “Waka Waka (This Time for Africa)“, was chosen as the official song for the 2010 FIFA World Cup, along with its Spanish language version, titled “Waka Waka (Esto es África)”.[15] The song has received generally positive critical reception, and has become a worldwide smash hit, selling more than 4 million copies worldwide, becoming the biggest selling World Cup song of all time.[16] On YouTube, the English version of the music video is the 3rd most watched video of all time with over 270 million views.[17] Her seventh studio album, the bilingual Sale el Sol, was released October 19, 2010.[18]

Bipasha Basu Goes Topless On Maxim Cover Magazine 2011

There are no second thoughts when Bipasha Basu is described as ‘hot, sexy, stunning, sizzling’. The bong beauty has proved herself once again by going topless for the Maxim magazine cover page of January 2011

The actress looks smoky hot with her exposed back and folded hands while covering her assets. The issue is a 5th Anniversary special edition, which portrays Bipasha as “super stunner, hotter, than ever.”

Amisha Patel at Ashmit Patel’s Birthday bash

Amisha Patel at Ashmit Patel’s Birthday bash

Amisha Patel at Ashmit Patel’s Birthday bash

Amisha Patel at Ashmit Patel’s Birthday bash

Amisha Patel at Ashmit Patel’s Birthday bash

Veena Malik Enjoys Ashmit Patel’s Birthday Bash, See who made it to Ashmit Patel’s birthday bash! None other than the sexy lassie from Pakistan, Veena Malik, Ashmit’s one of the favourite girls from the Bigg Boss house.

Ashmit reached the finals of Bigg Boss Season 4, and that makes him the winner for his family. His dear sister Amisha Patel and his lovely parents Asha and Amit Patel threw a big bash for him on his birthday, yesterday, at Veda. Along with close friends, Ashmit’s Bigg Boss housemates Shweta Tiwari, Sakshi Pradhan, Hrishant Goswami, Rahul Bhatt and many others were seen at the party. But Ashmit looked quite comfortable posing with Sara Khanthan Veena(see the images).

Sanjay Dutt’s wife Maanyata Dutt, a close friend of Amisha, was especially there, but Salman Khan wasn’t seen anywhere.

Veena and Ashmit even posed together for photogs. We bring to you the party-chemistry of these two. Catch the stills:

Katrina Kaif Hot Wallpapers

Katrina Kaif Hot Wallpapers

Katrina Kaif Hot Wallpapers

Katrina Kaif Hot Wallpapers

Katrina Kaif Hot Wallpapers

Katrina Kaif Hot Wallpapers

Katrina Kaif Hot Wallpapers

Katrina Kaif (born 16 July 1984[1]) is an actress and former model who appears in Indian films, mainly in the Hindi-language film industry.[2][3] She has also appeared in Telugu and Malayalam films. She was voted the “Hottest Woman in the World” by Eastern Eye in the years 2008, 2009 and 2010.[4]

Kaif began her modeling career at the age fourteen; her first job was for a jewelry campaign. She continued modeling in London under a contract with the Models 1 Agency and did campaigns for houses such as La Senza and Arcadius, and even walked on the London Fashion Week.[5]

Kaif’s London modeling-work led to her discovery by London-based filmmaker Kaizad Gustad, who gave her a part in his film Boom (2003). She moved to Mumbai and was offered a number of modeling assignments. However, filmmakers were initially hesitant to sign her because she could not speak Hindi.[10][11]

Kaif saw moderate success with the 2005 film Sarkar, where she played the bit part of Abhishek Bachchan‘s girlfriend, and Maine Pyaar Kyun Kiya (2005), where she was paired opposite Salman Khan.

In 2007, Kaif appeared in her first major hit movie, Namastey London, wherein she starred as a British Indian girl alongside Akshay Kumar for the second time after the box office letdown Humko Deewana Kar Gaye (2006). Her run of hit films continued with Apne, Partner, and Welcome.[12]

In 2008, she played the villain role for the first time in Abbas-Mustan‘s hit action thriller Race. She played the role of Saif Ali Khan‘s secretary who is secretly in love with his hostile stepbrother (played by Akshay Khanna). Kaif’s second release of the year was Anees Bazmee‘s production Singh Is Kinng, opposite Akshay Kumar. The film was a big success at the box office. Kaif’s final release of the year, Subhash Ghai‘s Yuvvraaj, was a commercial failure,[13] but its script has made its way into the Library of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences for artistic merits, original screenplay with a substance, and the film as a whole.[14][15]

Kaif’s first release for 2009, New York, with John Abraham, was a critical and commercial success.[16] Kaif’s performance was highly regarded. Wrote critic Taran Adarsh, “Katrina gives you the biggest surprise. Known for her glamour roles, Katrina proves that she can deliver if the director and writer offer her a role of substance. She’s outstanding. In fact, people will see a new, different Katrina this time.”[17]

She next played a bit role as a biker chick in the multi-starrer action film Blue, popularly known as India’s first underwater thriller,[18] which performed decently at the box office.[19] The film was not successful.

At the year’s end, she appeared in Ajab Prem Ki Ghazab Kahani, with Ranbir Kapoor, and De Dana Dan with Akshay Kumar. Both films were commercial successes.

Kaif’s first film of 2010 was Raajneeti, where she appeared opposite Ranbir Kapoor. The film did extremely well at the box office, receiving a blockbuster status.[20] She is also starred in Farah Khan‘s Tees Maar Khan with Akshay Kumar. The film was released on 24 December 2010.[21] Although the film was not successful, Kaif’s item song Sheila Ki Jawani was a hit.

Enrique Iglesias New Wallpapers

Enrique Iglesias New Wallpapers

Enrique Iglesias New Wallpapers

Enrique Iglesias New Wallpapers

Enrique Iglesias New Wallpapers

Enrique Iglesias New Wallpapers

Enrique Iglesias New Wallpapers

Enrique Iglesias New Wallpapers

Enrique Iglesias New Wallpapers

Enrique Iglesias New Wallpapers

Enrique Miguel Iglesias Preysler (born May 8, 1975), better known as Enrique Iglesias, is a Spanish pop music singer-songwriter.

Iglesias started his musical career on Mexican label Fonovisa. This helped turn him into one of the most popular artists in Latin America and in the Hispanic or Latino market in the United States, and the biggest seller of Spanish language albums for a number of years. Before the turn of the millennium, he made a crossover into the mainstream English language market, signing a unique multi-album deal with Universal Music Group for an unprecedented US$48,000,000, with Universal Music Latino to release his Spanish albums and Interscope to release English albums. In 2010, he parted with Interscope and signed with another Universal Music Group label, Universal Republic.

Iglesias has had four Billboard Hot 100 top five singles including two #1s, and holds the record for producing 21 number 1 Spanish-language singles on the Billboard‘s Hot Latin Tracks. Up until the release of his latest album, Euphoria, in 2010, he had sold over 55 million albums in both English and Spanish.[1]

 

Euphoria (Enrique Iglesias album)

Euphoria is the ninth studio album by Spanish pop singer-songwriter Enrique Iglesias. The album is a joint-release by Universal Republic and Universal Music Latino and was released on July 5, 2010 internationally and in the US on July 6, 2010. The album features guest appearances by Akon, Usher, Juan Luis Guerra, Pitbull, Nicole Scherzinger and Puerto Rican reggaeton duo Wisin and Yandel. The album consists of songs in English, and Spanish.[1]

The album’s first single “Cuando Me Enamoro” reached number-one on the Hot Latin Songs, while the album’s second single “I Like It“, reached number four on the Billboard Hot 100. Upon its release, the album debuted at number ten on the Billboard 200, with sales of 27,000 copies.

Akon Latest Wallpapers

Akon Latest Wallpapers

Akon Latest Wallpapers

Akon Latest Wallpapers

Akon Latest Wallpapers

Akon Latest Wallpapers

Akon Latest Wallpapers

Akon Latest Wallpapers

Akon Latest Wallpapers

Akon (born Aliaune Damala Bouga Time Puru Nacka Badara Akon Thiam), (pronounced /ˈeɪkɒn/),[1] (born April 16, 1973) is a Senegalese-American R&B singer-songwriter, rapper, record producer, and businessman.

He grosses over 30 million dollars a year according to Forbes. He rose to prominence in 2004 following the release of “Locked Up“, the first single from his debut album Trouble. His second album, Konvicted, earned him a Grammy Award nomination of the single “Smack That“. He has since founded two record labels, Konvict Muzik and Kon Live Distribution.

Akon often sings hooks for other artists and is currently credited with over 300 guest appearances and 45 Billboard Hot 100 songs. He has worked with numerous performers such as Michael Jackson, R. Kelly, Quincy Jones, Eminem and Whitney Houston. He is the first solo artist to hold both the number one and two spots simultaneously on the Billboard Hot 100 charts twice.[2] He has had 6 Grammy Awards nominations and has produced many hits for artists such as Lady Gaga, Colby O’Donis and Leona Lewis. Lady Gaga and T-Pain are two artists who were given their chance at fame by Akon. He has also released a song called “Beautiful” featuring Colby O’Donis and Kardinal Offishall which is in his hit album named Freedom which he released in 2008 and also “Right Now (Na Na Na)” in the same album.

Justin TimberLake New Magazines

Justin TimberLake New Magazines

Justin TimberLake New Magazines

Justin TimberLake New Magazines

Justin TimberLake New Magazines

Justin TimberLake New Magazines

Justin TimberLake New Magazines

Justin TimberLake New Magazines

Justin TimberLake New Magazines

Justin Randall Timberlake (born January 31, 1981)[1] is an American pop musician and actor. He has won six Grammy Awards as well as two Emmy Awards. He achieved early fame when he appeared as a contestant on Star Search, and went on to star in the Disney Channel television series The New Mickey Mouse Club, where he met future bandmate JC Chasez. Timberlake became famous in the late 1990s as the lead singer of the boy band ‘N Sync, whose launch was financed by Lou Pearlman.

In 2002, he released his debut solo album, Justified, which sold more than 7 million copies worldwide. The album was a commercial success, spawning the hits “Cry Me a River” and “Rock Your Body“. Timberlake continued his success with his second solo album, FutureSex/LoveSounds (2006), debuting at number one on the Billboard 200 chart, and produced the US number-one hit singles “SexyBack“, “My Love“, and “What Goes Around…/…Comes Around“.

Timberlake’s first two albums made him one of the most commercially successful singers in the world, each selling in excess of 7 million copies. Aside from music, he has also begun an acting career, while his other ventures include record label Tennman Records, fashion label William Rast, and the restaurants Destino and Southern Hospitality.

Jay Sean Hot Magazines

Jay Sean Hot Magazines

Jay Sean Hot Magazines

Jay Sean Hot Magazines

Jay Sean Hot Magazines

Jay Sean Hot Magazines

Jay Sean Hot Magazines

Kamaljit Singh Jhooti[1][2] (Punjabi: ਕਮਲਜੀਤ ਸਿੰਘ ਝੁੱਟੀ (Gurmukhi); born 26 March 1981), better known by his stage name Jay Sean, is a British singer-songwriter, rapper, beatboxer and record producer.[3] He debuted in the Asian underground scene as a member of the Rishi Rich Project with “Dance with You“, which reached #12 on the UK Singles Chart in 2003. This led to him being signed to Virgin Records and having two UK top 10 hits as a solo artist in 2004: “Eyes On You” at #6 and “Stolen” at #4. They were included in his critically-acclaimed debut album Me Against Myself which,[4] though only moderately successful in the UK, sold more than two million copies across Asia and remains his most successful album to date.[5][6][7] Alongside the Rishi Rich Project, Sean was a pioneer of Bhangra-R&B fusion, which his debut album helped popularize among the worldwide South Asian diaspora.[8]

He eventually left Virgin in 2006 and founded his own independent label, Jayded Records. After a gap of nearly four years, he returned in 2008 with “Ride It“, which reached #11 in the UK and topped the charts in several Eastern European countries, including Romania where it was one of the best-selling singles of the year. It was followed by hits such as “Maybe“, which reached #7 on the Japan Hot 100,[9] and “Tonight“. They were included in his second album, My Own Way, which became his most successful album on the UK Albums Chart, reaching #6, and topped the UK R&B Chart.

Since the end of 2008, has he been signed to Cash Money Records. In 2009, his American debut single “Down” topped the Billboard Hot 100, making him the first solo artist of South Asian origin and first UK urban act to top the Hot 100.[10] It was the seventh-best selling song of 2009, having sold more than three million digital copies in the United States,[11][12][13][14] and six million copies worldwide,[15] making him the most successful British/European male urban artist in US chart history.[16][17] It was soon followed by another hit, “Do You Remember“, which has sold more than a million copies in the US,[18] and entered the top ten on the Hot 100,[19] making him the first male act since Chingy in 2003 to “simultaneously appear in the Hot 100 top 10 with his first two charting singles.”[20] They were included in his American-debut album All or Nothing, which debuted at #37 on the US Billboard 200 and reached #11 on the Japan Oricon Albums Chart.[21] Sean is sometimes referred to as a “one-man boy band[22][23] and was ranked #35 in Billboard’s Hot 100 Artists of 2009.[24]

Katy Perry HOt Wallpapers

Katy Perry HOt Wallpapers

Katy Perry HOt Wallpapers

Katy Perry HOt Wallpapers

Katy Perry HOt Wallpapers

Katheryn Elizabeth Hudson (born October 25, 1984), better known by her stage name Katy Perry, is an American pop musician. Born in Santa Barbara, California, and raised by Christian pastor parents; Perry grew up listening to only gospel music and sang in her local church as a child. After earning a GED during her freshman year of high school, she began to pursue a career in music. As Katy Hudson, she released a self-titled gospel album in 2001, which due to the closing of her record label, was deemed unsuccessful. She later recorded an album with production team The Matrix and completed the majority of a solo album from 2004–5; neither of which were released.

After signing with Capitol Music Group in 2007, her fourth record label in seven years, she adopted the stage name Katy Perry and released her first Internet single “Ur So Gay” that November, which garnered public attention; but failed to chart. She rose to fame with the release of her second single “I Kissed a Girl” in 2008, which went on to top international charts. Perry’s first mainstream studio album One of the Boys followed later that year and subsequently, became the thirty-third best selling album worldwide of 2008.[1] It was accredited platinum certification by the Recording Industry Association of America, while “I Kissed a Girl” and her second single “Hot n Cold” both received multi-platinum certifications. Her sophomore studio album Teenage Dream was released in August 2010 and debuted at number one on the Billboard 200. The album included hit singles “California Gurls“, “Teenage Dream” and “Firework“, all of which topped the charts on the Billboard Hot 100 and worldwide.

Perry was credited as a guest judge on the seventh series of the British television show The X Factor; has released a fragrance called “Purr”; and will appear in the upcoming 2011-film The Smurfs.

Perry had a long relationship with Travie McCoy; she married Russell Brand on October 23, 2010.[2]